EIDHS Project Fact Sheets
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The COVID-19 Global HRP is a joint effort by members of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), including UN, other international organizations and NGOs with a humanitarian mandate, to analyse and respond to the direct public health and indirect immediate humanitarian consequences of the pandemic, particularly on people in countries already facing other crises.
The Global Health Security (GHS) Index is the first compre-hensive assessment and benchmarking of health security and related capabilities across the 195 countries that make up the States Parties1 to the International Health Regu-lations (IHR ).2 The GHS Index is a project of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) and the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security (JHU) and was developed with The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). These organizations believe that, over time, the GHS Index will spur measur-able changes in national health security and improve international capability to address one of the world’s most omnipresent risks: infectious disease outbreaks that can lead to international epidemics and pandemics.
Benchmarking is a strategic process often used by businesses and institutes to standardize performance in relation to best practices of their sector. World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners have developed a tool with a list of benchmarks and corresponding actions that can be applied to increase the performance of countries in emergency preparedness through the development and implementation of a National Action Plan for Health Security (NAPHS). The WHO Benchmarks for International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR/IHR (2005)) Capacities are broad in nature to improve IHR capacities for health security and integrate multisectoral concerns at subnational (local and regional/provincial) and national levels. This means that if all benchmarks are achieved and sustained, the level of preparedness of the country would be optimum to prevent, detect and respond to threats and events.
The first edition of the WHO Joint External Evaluation (JEE) tool was made available in February 2016, and by the end of December 2017 67 countries had requested a JEE to WHO and completed the voluntary evaluation using this tool.
In accordance with the 2017 Kampala Declaration, which extended GHSA’s mandate by 5 years, the GHSA Steering Group leda consultative process todevelop a framework for the second phaseof GHSA, termed “GHSA 2024.” The GHSA 2024 Framework provides a high-level view of the context for GHSA’s goals and objectives for 2019-2024 and an outline of how GHSA will operate and track progress to achieve these goals. As needed, the GHSA Steering Group will consider changes to the Framework. The Steering Group will conduct a consultation with the GHSA-wide communityon any proposed changes.
Global health security is the existence of strong and resilient public health systems that can prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats, wherever they occur in the world. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) works 24/7 to protect the health, safety, and security of the American people and fight global health threats worldwide, so we don’t have to fight them here at home. CDC’s global health security work is carried out collaboratively by four CDC centers: The Center for Global Health, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, and the Center for Preparedness and Response. In today’s globalized society, a disease threat anywhere is a disease threat everywhere.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to global public health. In 2015, WHO launched the Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (GLASS) in order to standardize the collection of data on AMR in Member States, for planning, prevention and intervention programmes. Reports to GLASS currently rely on detection of phenotypic resistance, which requires bacteria to be cultured and tested for growth in the presence of antimicrobial agents. In future, GLASS may incorporate the results of molecular testing for AMR detection by appropriate methods. Molecular diagnostic methods can be used at the same time as phenotypic testing to yield additional information, such as the exact gene or mutation underlying a resistance phenotype. This informationcan be used to interpret AMR profiles at surveillance sites and better understand the global occurrence of certain resistance mechanisms.
This guide was developed to assist with the translation of WHO policies on tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic testing into practical guidance on the implementation of WHO-recommended tests and algorithms for TBtesting.
The political declaration at the first United Nations (UN) high-level meeting on tuberculosis (TB) held on 26 September 2018 included commitments by Member States to four new global targets.3 One of these targets is to diagnose and treat 40 million people with TB in the 5-year period 2018–2022. The approximate breakdown of the target is about 7 million in 2018 and about 8 million in subsequent years. The traditional method for diagnosing TB using a light microscope, developed more than 100 years ago, has in recent years been challenged by several new methods and tools. These methods are based on either the detection of mycobacterial antigens or on the detection of mycobacterial DNA.